David Ipungu Gondele1,2*, Eulethère Vita Kintoki1, Yves Lubenga1, Georges Ngoyi1,
Trésor Mvunzi1, Dominique Mupepe1, Nathan Buila1, Zéphirin Kamuanga3, Fahd Qureshi3,
Aliosha Nkodila4, Jean Robert Rissasi Makulo5, Jean René M’buyamba-Kabangu1
1Cardiology Unit, University of Kinshasa Hospital, Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo
2Cardiology Unit, Centre Hospitalier Victor Dupouy, Argenteuil, France
3Cardiology Unit, H.J. Hospitals, Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo
4Public Health and Familly Medecine, Protestant University of Congo, Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo
5Nephrology Unit, University of Kinshasa Hospital, Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo
Background: The objective of this pilot study was to describe clinical profile, electric, echocardiographic and angiographic caracteristics with procedural outcome of congolease patients undergoing coronarography in the first and only one cardiac catheterization center opened in Kinshasa. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out over a period from October 2019 (date of establishment of the first coronary angiography unit in DR Congo) to March 2021. We proceeded to a serial sampling of the consecutive cases of all the patients who have an angiographic exploration of coronary arteries. Clinical, ECG and cardiac ultrasound data were collected in all patients.
The indications for the coronary angiography examination were set by differents cardiologists on the basis of repolarization troubles in the electrocardiogram, cinetic troubles in echocardiography, positive stress test and chest pain in patients with cardiovascular risq factors. Results: The serie (47 patients) was predominantly male with a sex ratio M/W of 2.6. The average age was 59.8 ± 10.5 years. Arterial hypertension (HBP) was the main risk factor (89.4%); followed by diabetes mellitus (14.9%). Chest pain was the main functional sign with an atypical character in 44.7%. The ECG showed ST segment depression (17%) and T wave inversion (17%), the anterior region being the most affected. Hypokinesia was the most common echocardiographic abnormality (34%), followed by akinesia (10.6%). The anteroseptal and apical territories were affected in 12.8%. Dilated myocardiopathy (DMC) was significantly predominant in the male sex (29.4% vs 7.7%; p = 0.011).
With radial puncture as the main approach, coronary angiography was pathological in 44% revealing mono-truncal lesions. The left coronary network was the most affected: the middle inter ventricular artery (12.8%), the proximal interventricular artery (10.6%) and the proximal circonflex artery
(10.6%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (for age > 50 years for men and >60 years for women), arterial hypertension and dilated cardiomyopathy emerged as independent determinants of pathological coronary angiography.
Transluminal angioplasty was performed in 27.7% of patients. The bypass indication was retained in 4.3% of cases and medical treatment in 68%. Conclusion: Coronary angiography was used to diagnose lesions responsible for ischemic heart disease and to treat 27.7% of patients locally. The young age of patients and limited financial resources encourage the strengthening of preventive measures against cardio vascular risq factors.
Heart Disease, Coronary Angioplasty, Patient Profile, Pilot Study, Democratic Republic of Congo
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine, 2023, 12, 371-388